Study guide for the research system
Study guide for the research system
This study guide identifies the main rationale for gathering information. This “shopping list” is an ideal list. Some information might not be available. Other information might difficult to gather because of inadequate presentations or difficult to obtain documents. The project needs at a minimum to explain why the information is not available.
SECTION 1. THE SOCIAL INSCRIPTION OF SCIENCE
How science is represented in the government (role of coordinating authorities, and of institutions that draft the S&T policy, main working of public institutions of research, history and importance of these policies. Are scientists working for the government?)
Political support given to science in the country (history, debates, main personalities, general orientations).
Public debates around science and its role (are there debates, what is the agenda, prospective toward the future…). Social image of science in the country. Evolution (all this according to the already available bibliography).
Pressure groups, lobbying, around science (against, for, private interest, corporate groups, the role of the military…). Socio-cognitive groups: alliances, even if they are paradoxical in supporting science, between scientists and formally identified groups, organizations, political groups.
Brief history of institutions + bibliography
SECTION 2. INSTITUTIONS
Organisation of research:
The public sector (Universities and public research institutions ; ministries that are involved in research);
Other institutions (intermediate organizations, scientific associations, professional associations of scientists and engineers, academies, quasi-public institutions, institutions promoting research, S&T, innovation, companies heavily involved in research...)
National policy. Decision-making bodies.
Is there a national plan for research ? Main funding bodies, main orientation bodies.
Laws and decrees:
Specifying the nature of research establishments ;
Specifying the status of researchers;
Investment code, incentives to productive sector or research and development ;
History and critics, debates on the legislative aspects.
On uses of research and innovation:
Institutions in charge of technology transfer from universities to the productive sector, agencies, foundations, etc…)
Patenting system and intellectual property laws.
Production norms, national norms for quality and service ;
Specific measures devoted to incentives for researchers.
Information infrastructure and new telecom and information technologies:
some data on connections to internet, available statistics on computers and information technologies ;
Is there a National Action Plan in new technologies ? strategy of the country in new information and computer technologies.
Policies designed for the promotion of information technologies. E-learning, etc…
Research and innovation in computer science and telecoms.
Bibliography on institutions and laws.
SECTION 3. SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL POTENTIAL
Number of personnel :
o Public sector : Universities, number of researchers, scientists and engineers, are there official statistics ? o Private sector stats : Industry, other sectors, employment.
Scientific Associations, professional associations, journals and publications.
National and international networks
Active scientific communities in the country (which areas, which type of professional domains)
SECTION 4. FUNDING OF RESEARCH
Public budget. Evolution in the last 5 to 10 years. Distribution of the public budget (institutions, areas, activities, types of expenses : salaries, programmes, equipment) as far as possible.
Known foreign and international funding sources. Identify the main funding sources. (Multilateral or bilateral international cooperation institutions, NGOs, Foundations).
If possible, expenses or funds distributed by these agencies and funding institutions in the last 5 to 10 years.
Funding by productive sectors (R&D, industrial contracts, etc…)
SECTION 5. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
National programmes of scientific cooperation.
International programmes to which national institutions are participating.
Negotiation of scientific cooperation. Decision-making process, type of institutions in charge of international ccoperation (bilateral agreement commission, or other similar bodies).
Objective of these cooperations: thesis and studies abroad, short stays in foreign countries, equipment, research travels; volume of these cooperations and main subject areas.
SECTION 6. INITIATIVES GOUVERNEMENTALES
Specific policies designed for S&T:
Strengthening the research potential (human resources, equipment, budgets, …)
Structuring the scientific milieux (support to communication, internet, publications, support to associations, and scientific and engineering academies)
Bettering the way things work out (better administrative rules, mobility of researchers, promotion of innovation…)
SECTION 7. INTERVIEWS IN ESTABLISHMENTS ; LABS ; INDIVIDUAL RESEARCHERS A lot of the information can be gathered through interviews. A list of institutions, labs and persons needs to be established. IRD will establish list through bibliometric analysis.
Depending on the country, each team will decide its own survey strategy.
Guidelines for innovation and uses of research (At the time being, only available in French)
SECTION 8. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATABASES
When possible the PASCAL bibliographical database will be compared to local sources or other databases. IRD will provide the results of the bibliometric analysis of PASCAL database.